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Cquire the disease the first time (primary infections) are often asymptomatic and will generate immunity to homologous strains of the virus; however, ninety percent of DHF/ DSS cases come from a second exposure (secondary infection) to a heterologus strain of dengue[5]. Patients with a secondary heterotypic infection are at least 40-80 times more likely to develop DHF/DSS as patients with a primar
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Ly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA) were made in dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted in medium, i.e., DMEM with 2.5 FBS, before use. Stock solutions of 10 mg/ml 2-AP; 4 mg/ml levamisole; 10 mg/ml L-NAME and 1 mg/ml L-NMMA were directly made in medium; hemin: a stock solution of 3.25 mg/ml was prepared by addingPage 8 of(page number not for citation purposes)Virology Journal 2008, 5:http:/
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The antibodies are involved in release of complement and anaphylatoxins which can cause or exacerbate DHF/DSS. These systems are inextricable and strongly associated with dengue pathogenesis.Dengue Background and SignificanceThe Dengue Virus is a member of the family Flaviviridae along with other noted viruses Yellow Fever, West Nile, and Japanese Encephalitis. Dengue is a positive stranded RNA ar
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Egins with dengue infection of dendritic cells that, in turn, promiscuously activates T cells. T cells during a dengue infection have prolific and cross reactive effector functions in addition to producing copious amounts of cytokines that feature prominently in cases of DHF/DSS. A second component in immune enhancement is Antibody Dependant Enhancement (ADE). Heterologus non-neutralizing antibodi
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Cquire the disease the first time (primary infections) are often asymptomatic and will generate immunity to homologous strains of the virus; however, ninety percent of DHF/ DSS cases come from a second exposure (secondary infection) to a heterologus strain of dengue[5]. Patients with a secondary heterotypic infection are at least 40-80 times more likely to develop DHF/DSS as patients with a primar
1
Ly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA) were made in dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted in medium, i.e., DMEM with 2.5 FBS, before use. Stock solutions of 10 mg/ml 2-AP; 4 mg/ml levamisole; 10 mg/ml L-NAME and 1 mg/ml L-NMMA were directly made in medium; hemin: a stock solution of 3.25 mg/ml was prepared by addingPage 8 of(page number not for citation purposes)Virology Journal 2008, 5:http:/
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Izes DHF/DSS are regulated by Complement proteins and associated anaphylatoxins. These three systems both interact and reinforce each other to create a potentially life threatening situation during a Dengue infection.Antibodies Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE) has been proposed to be a mechanism by which the immune system may enhance viral pathogenesis[7]. When monkeys were passively immunized
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Nce in Hawaii, Cuba, and Thailand[9] shows populations with previous exposure to the dengue virus are at an increased risk for DHF/DSS. Also infants born to dengue immune mothers were shown to be at an increased risk for DHF/DSS[10]. It's not clear how antibodies enhance viral infection. Onehypothesis suggests that non-neutralizing antibodies direct active virions to permissive cells in the immune

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